How Many Languages Are There?

  • čas přidán Před 4 měsíci

    Tom Scott

    doba trvání: 04:03

    The answer is, of course, a bit more complicated than you might think. •
    Written with Molly Ruhl and Gretchen McCulloch. Gretchen's podcast has an episode all about this: lingthusiasm.com/post/154520059101/lingthusiasm-episode-1-speaking-a-single-language
    Gretchen's book BECAUSE INTERNET, all about the evolution of internet language, is available:
    🇺🇸 US: amzn.to/30tLpjT
    🇨🇦 CA: amzn.to/2JsTYWH
    🇬🇧 UK: amzn.to/31K8eRD
    (Those are affiliate links that give a commission to me or Gretchen, depending on country!)
    Graphics by William Marler: wmad.co.uk
    Audio mix by Graham Haerther: haerther.net
    REFERENCES:
    Eberhard, D.M., Simons, G.F., and Fennig, C.D. (eds.). 2020. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Twenty-third edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. www.ethnologue.com.
    François, A. (2014). Trees, waves and linkages: Models of language diversification. In Evans, B. & Bowern, C. The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics. (pp. 161-189). London: Routledge Ltd - M.U.A.
    Heeringa, W., & Nerbonne, J. (2001). Dialect areas and dialect continua. Language Variation and Change, 13(3), 375-400. doi:10.1017/S0954394501133041
    Burridge, J. (2017). Spatial evolution of human dialects. Physical Review. X, 7(3), 031008.
    Libermann, M. (2003). This is not middle earth. LanguageLog. itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/000214.html
    Labov, W. (1973). Sociolinguistic patterns (Conduct and communication, 4). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Laakso, J. (2018). Language borders and cultural encounters: A linguistic view on interdisciplinarity in the research of intercultural contacts. In Palander, M., Riionheimo, H., & Koivisto, V. On the border of language and dialect. (pp. 38-55) Studia Fennica Linguistica
    Lupyan, Gary, & Dale, Rick. (2016). Why Are There Different Languages? The Role of Adaptation in Linguistic Diversity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(9), 649-660.
    Bybee, J. L. (2006). From Usage to Grammar: The Mind's Response to Repetition. Language (Baltimore), 82(4), 711-733.
    Bucholtz, M. & Hall, K. (2005) Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies. vol. 7 (4-2): 585-614.
    Bucholtz, M. (1999). “Why be normal?”: Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society, 28(2), 203-223.
    Steels, L. (2011). Modeling the cultural evolution of language. Physics of Life Reviews, 8(4), 339-356.
    Honkola, T., Ruokolainen, K., Syrjänen, K., Leino, U. P., Tammi, I., Wahlberg, N., & Vesakoski, O. (2018). Evolution within a language: environmental differences contribute to divergence of dialect groups. BMC evolutionary biology, 18(1), 132. doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1238-6
    Austin, P.K. & Sallabank, J. (2011). Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages. Cambridge University Press.
    New York Times / Associated Press (2017). Icelanders Seek to Keep Their Language Alive and Out of ‘the Latin Bin’
    I'm at tomscott.com
    on Twitter at tomscott
    on Facebook at tomscott
    and on Instagram as tomscottgo

Tom Scott
Tom Scott

This is the last of the language videos that I filmed earlier this year! There may be more in 2021, but until then, thanks very much to the whole team that work on these: their details, and all the references, are in the description.

Před 7 měsíci
Tristan The gamer
Tristan The gamer

well my language was nearly extinct and has many other related and are extinct what language am i. don't press read more until answered Answer: welsh related Cumbric possibly Pictish same language tree as Gaelic's, Breton, Manx

Před měsícem
Wil' Balright
Wil' Balright

Yes. Definitely yes

Před měsícem
Luke O'Connor
Luke O'Connor

And did that make sense?

Před měsícem
Luke O'Connor
Luke O'Connor

@Jonas Arnesen that’s the YouTube research paradox where if you post it on line someone will have an ancer because (insert reason here) Okay it’s a stretch

Před měsícem
Jonas Arnesen
Jonas Arnesen

@Luke O'Connor to be honest Europe isn't even as diverse as China. Europe has little over 200 languages and China has around 300. Europe may be the continent aside from Antarctica with by far the fewest languages.

Před měsícem
LB
LB

That's why I like Esperanto.

Před 17 hodinami
Azmy Adzkiansyah
Azmy Adzkiansyah

tbh english disappearing would be a blessing

Před 21 hodinou
Aravind Suresh
Aravind Suresh

Joke? 2000 of those are in India

Před 2 dny
Slappy Mc Gee
Slappy Mc Gee

languages is like evolution, we have little to non control of it.

Před 2 dny
TM_
TM_

Thanks for the video! Finally I know how to explain what a species is and how new ones emerge. It is like languages. As long as they are similar, they have strong influence on each other and dialects are like sub-species, which still can mate. But, mostly through geographic separation, languages evolve to two distinct forms, just like species.

Před 2 dny
TM_
TM_

And there are also eveolutionary trees out there, which are really cool and interesting! But in comparison to species, such trees show much more horizontal "gene transfer" for languages.

Před 2 dny
Dan Severns
Dan Severns

I have always just heard “It’s raining when it’s sunny” without any folklore attached.

Před 2 dny
Rainy
Rainy

xnopyt

Před 3 dny
NFSHeld
NFSHeld

English native speakers: We should all agree on one common language, probably the one most people speak already. 同意 选择了中文。 *surprised Pikachu face*

Před 4 dny
名前名前
名前名前

death to mandarin long live manchu

Před 2 dny
Greg B
Greg B

I do speak English, and if it died off eventually, it wouldn't really bother me. Who cares if Harry Potter exists as a translation?

Před 4 dny
Trevor Lewis
Trevor Lewis

English could die in a fire for all I'd care.

Před 7 dny
Esteban Fiddeou
Esteban Fiddeou

The spanish version of Imma is Voa, or Wa (voy a), but there is a further agglomeration: Mua (me voy a (Imma […] myself))

Před 7 dny
Lòhr'rnà
Lòhr'rnà

Another problem with the Ethnologue's list is that a lot of small languages are often forgotten. My language, Lorrain, a minority Gallo-Romance language spoken in modern-day France and Belgium, isn't seen as a language by the Ethnologue And it's not an isolated case

Před 7 dny
Diego Bizeps
Diego Bizeps

It is not "I'm going to start", it is "i am going to think about whether i might begin or not"

Před 8 dny
John Estupido
John Estupido

Well, it is not like a language dies in the snap of a finger.

Před 8 dny
thehydra A
thehydra A

ঠিক আছে, কমেন্ট এবার বাংলাই লিখলাম।

Před 8 dny
Trevor Clark
Trevor Clark

I love your linguistic stuff I also love how you reference everything most things I greatly appreciate that

Před 9 dny
Quack
Quack

3:30 Jokes on you, I’m not from England so I already grew up on translations and that worked fine

Před 11 dny
ageofheros animation
ageofheros animation

And you get South Africa, with its 12 languages.

Před 14 dny
ctrl c ctrl v
ctrl c ctrl v

Imma

Před 14 dny
prince 2.0
prince 2.0

Best Language is maths 😁

Před 15 dny
Sasha Willow Smith
Sasha Willow Smith

The translation issue is a problem having many languages causes to be fair Noone can be expected to know even every major language so everyone is cut off from even being able to chose to experience tonnes of culture and stories. But then even if you only speak english there is far too many stories, music etc being created to experience all of just for english speakers *Sigh* really makes you feel small

Před 15 dny
Louis Francisco
Louis Francisco

I don't know if they are good at what they know, but Lingthusiasm is good at saying wrong things about things they really know nothing about. I stopped listening after 5 minutes because there were too many mistakes for me to take them seriously.

Před 17 dny
Viktória Vadon
Viktória Vadon

But imagine how cool it'd be if all families were bilingual (or more), speaking their native language(s) and English!

Před 19 dny
GydigiGytha
GydigiGytha

The Icelandic language is available on phones. My friends in Iceland never seemed to have trouble with it

Před 20 dny
Riley Carpenter
Riley Carpenter

Content

Před 21 dnem
Thomas Busse
Thomas Busse

711, 71, etc are Magic Numbers in the Occult and Secret Societies.

Před 22 dny
you is stupid
you is stupid

As a person who loves languages. This video broke my heart.

Před 22 dny
somerandomdudeable
somerandomdudeable

"How many languages are there?" High tide or low tide?

Před 25 dny
Vyasama
Vyasama

frisian disappears at high tide

Před 8 dny
elisheva barenbaum
elisheva barenbaum

A language is a dialect with an army and a navy was said to Max Weinreich, in reference to Yiddish, that has neither.

Před 25 dny
Silvia Sánchez
Silvia Sánchez

"Que no cunda el pánico" Very well played, sir

Před 25 dny
Ernesto Carrillo
Ernesto Carrillo

English and the Yanks are taking over!

Před 25 dny
Angry Ted
Angry Ted

Scots: English? People from another country English: Englush? It's a language used by people all over the world, even the northern British ("Scots")

Před 25 dny
Mino Arno
Mino Arno

1:05 Vlaams, as a Flemish speaker myself I salute you ;P

Před 25 dny
some person
some person

7117 are the four numbers after my name in my school login :D

Před 26 dny
Aurelia
Aurelia

You won't guilt me into feeling sorry for the extincition of obscure languages only spokemon by a few thousand people in africa F*ck off

Před 26 dny
Nic Jansen
Nic Jansen

3:29 Isn't this the exact same as one of the meanings of the word "draft"(or "draught") in English or "tocht" in Dutch? This reminds me somehow that "the day after tomorrow" is more common than "overmorrow" while "overmorgen" is an often used Dutch word and "de dag na morgen" sounds really strange

Před 27 dny
Kolle
Kolle

I'm Icelandic and I understand what you mean I don't live in Iceland anymore and I'm near forgetting it even though its the only language I can speak with my granparents and cousins

Před 28 dny
WhyArePea
WhyArePea

I purposely started spelling "Exactly" as *_“EGGZACKTLI"_* AND NOW 13 PEOPLE I KNOW USES "EGGZACKTLI" INSTEAD OF "Exactly"

Před 28 dny
WhyArePea
WhyArePea

@Baran wokay 🗿👍

Před 23 dny
Baran
Baran

Start a cult. I'll join

Před 23 dny
ewrilan
ewrilan

NOOO! Don't do anything to polish and its words like: haluszki kluchy połom bite kluski czarne kluski śląskie kopytka knedliki lane kluski pierogi leniwe przecieraki pyzy szpecle zacierki (all mean noodles)

Před 28 dny
Bruce Schneider
Bruce Schneider

Robert MacNeil's series "The Story of English" was brilliant. Also, as an ESL (English as a Second Language) teacher, explaining English as it is changing provides a lot of good opportunities for discussion.

Před 28 dny
László B
László B

2:40 but Icelandic is there on macbooks tho

Před 28 dny
Phil Box
Phil Box

I wonder if they included the some 1,700 ish distinct languages in Papua New Guinea. Each mountainous valley has a completely distinct language and the next valley over's inhabitants have zero clue about the other's language. Hence why Pidgin English is spoken as a Lingua Franca between Wontoks.

Před 28 dny
Digaddog
Digaddog

I feel like it would be fine with me if English disappeared. Of course, chances are it will never happen in my lifetime so I'll never know for sure, but as long as its possible to learn the language, which is much harder when its dead but still possible, especially with the sheer amount of English works and ai, I don't care to much.

Před 29 dny
David Maes
David Maes

@4:01 "They were A computer" ... "They were computers" ?

Před 29 dny
Firecat the potato
Firecat the potato

7,117

Před 29 dny
max
max

the inclusion of singlish 😱😍😌

Před 29 dny
You can call me Al
You can call me Al

Guía del autoestopista galáctico "Que no cunda el pánico"

Před měsícem
Roger Szmodis
Roger Szmodis

Holding on to dead culture is our most destructive habit. If a language wants to go extinct and take its culture with it I say good riddance. If we just let go of it, billions of people wouldn’t be living their lives according to the advice of some mentally disturbed, inbred goat herder who died 3500 years ago passed down through a few hundred generation game of telephone.

Před měsícem
Verbindungsfehle
Verbindungsfehle

3:37 Did you just assume my native language?

Před měsícem
John Patch
John Patch

So my language has millions of speakers, yet it isn't the official language in its namesake country (because it's trapped inside a bigger country), however it IS the official language of one of the smallest countries in Europe. Catalan is not the main official language in Catalonia, that would be Spanish. But in Andorra, the official language is Catalan. It won't dissappear soon, even if that's what fascist spanish groups drool over. But then inside catalonia there's a region with its own language, Aranese (a dialect of Occitan), called Val D'Aran (Valley of Aran), within Catalonia. Coincidentially Aran sits practically right next to Andorra. And my own region, Pallars, was once ruled by a king who tried to get independence from Catalonia just to save his ass. We even have a school and other places named after him. So the lesson is, States are just lines on a map, the real countries are defined by culture, and it gets complicated. And also, independence runs in our blood. Catalonia WILL be free. As will the Basque country. (And potentially the Aran Valley might do that themselves at some point too)

Před měsícem
Jimmy McGill
Jimmy McGill

Danish has kinda the same problem as Icelandic

Před měsícem
HalfLife9000
HalfLife9000

xnopyt

Před měsícem
Target _667
Target _667

as a dutch speaking Belgian also known as flemish i apreciate the tank with vlaams op

Před měsícem
bread
bread

BTW Download swift key keyboard It has Icelandic

Před měsícem
John Johnson
John Johnson

I don’t think anyone is missing out on the Icelandic language

Před měsícem
Duskrider
Duskrider

Tom please cover newfound and it's odd diolect

Před měsícem
Felixkjornsberg
Felixkjornsberg

"imagine how it would feel if english was endangered?" vad snackar den här pysen om? Jag kan ju prata svenska när som helst

Před měsícem
ccc310
ccc310

If only languages weren't a pain in the *** to learn everyone would speak 50 of them.

Před měsícem
you is stupid
you is stupid

Are you a native English speaker?

Před 22 dny
Fouke
Fouke

make it 1 >:]

Před měsícem
Diego18
Diego18

yo there actually is icelandic now at least in android þþþæöæöþ

Před měsícem
Mitch Rogoff
Mitch Rogoff

I welcome the rise of English as the sole remaining language

Před měsícem
solidus4prez
solidus4prez

We are on the cusp of sentience but I don't know which side we're on and that's exhilaratingly scary

Před měsícem
tamooz br
tamooz br

2:40 gotta love that hebrew is LTR and not RTL here Just pointing that out

Před měsícem
Brandi Raine
Brandi Raine

One of the coolest things is theres an entire dialect of English that is just as different as American English or British English, and that’s Online English. Words that are rarely used in localized versions, or are never used Like That, are used online. One of the best examples is Lewd. Most everyone who knows English knows what Lewd means, but it’s really only used online. Other examples are words like “shrimp”. I shrimp for (person). “I platonically love this person and do everything I can to support them” while having a stronger interpersonal connection between the 2 people than your typical fan-celebrity “love”.

Před měsícem
MaenINoldo
MaenINoldo

Swiss German is a good example of "what constitutes a language?". It never was standardised, and there are no rules on how to write it (it is called mundart, the spoken way. As opposed to Schriftdeutsch, the written German (iem regular German)). Reading text messages from someone from a different region, one that uses vowels in a different way, can be interesting at times 😅 So about every village has its own version, and there are substantial differences between cantons. But it's all one language... Maybe? Along with Elsace German? And southern German regional dialects/languages?

Před měsícem
Chaitanya Anand
Chaitanya Anand

At 2:40 the spelling for Hindi is wrong.

Před měsícem
Pedro Braga
Pedro Braga

How did you use future before "going to"?

Před měsícem
Mr. Hat
Mr. Hat

"I will"

Před měsícem
A cat on his hind legs.
A cat on his hind legs.

I wouldn’t mind losing English but ya know I feel like instead of losing languages so much I think it would be better to learn both your native language and a universally understood one for keeping history.

Před měsícem
IRLFine Gaming
IRLFine Gaming

The Hebrew word for Hebrew on the phone animation at 2:37 has the letters in the reverse order (the video has it as תירבע instead of עברית)

Před měsícem
Frederik Gjern Rosenberg
Frederik Gjern Rosenberg

Honestly i would be completely ok with the danish language being wiped off the earth and replaced with english

Před měsícem
Icwatto
Icwatto

in my s9 phone ðere are icelandic

Před měsícem
DeluxeTux5249
DeluxeTux5249

Oh, you like languages? Name every language. Me: *PROTO-WORLD* (and all of its dialects)

Před měsícem
Xaim
Xaim

Me an italian downloading a game:

Před měsícem
Shawn Deer Williams
Shawn Deer Williams

The amount of langauges to satisfy duolingo

Před měsícem
Birb64
Birb64

I am someone with a personal dialect that is a bit on the latin side. Similis hōc.

Před měsícem
W Spann
W Spann

7,117

Před měsícem
Tamara Morrison
Tamara Morrison

I just noticed the wort "עברית" is written from left to right on the little phone animation. Which looks really weird, wow

Před měsícem
roger van Bommel
roger van Bommel

Really, that statement at the end would be a problem, though since I speak Dutch as my native is it not as bad

Před měsícem
Sparky 2_0
Sparky 2_0

SUCK IT TEACHER GONNA IS A WORD HA

Před měsícem
GX
GX

Dont care. All is fine

Před měsícem
MILES TECHNOLOGIES
MILES TECHNOLOGIES

I hope one day there will be only one language so kids don't have to go through the pain of learning other languages.

Před měsícem
rL0dWasHere
rL0dWasHere

xnopyt

Před měsícem
Alix
Alix

My dad says one day, because of the internet, all languages except two, english and mandarin, will die and eventually the remaining two will merge

Před měsícem
Arno Nym
Arno Nym

The question is also: do Serbian and Croatian count as different languages? Politically they do, but in fact, they're the same (besides the typical dialect things). Same issue like displaying disputed borders on a map. You can only fail :)

Před měsícem
ׂ ׂ
ׂ ׂ

20XX- Draggshugar (international English) [noun - Draeg Shu ger] The wind that comes through the window

Před měsícem
Apothe Curio
Apothe Curio

Adam Neely and Tom Scott are becoming the pioneers of anti clickbait.

Před měsícem
P6-5 RAMESH LOHAN
P6-5 RAMESH LOHAN

Haha Singlish is not a language. The government of singapore is actually discouraging singlish(I think&

Před měsícem
Sod Almighty
Sod Almighty

No, "imma" is not a word.

Před měsícem
Wooden Shovel
Wooden Shovel

me: I want to learn every language! also me: *oh*

Před měsícem
gábor papp
gábor papp

Never going to give you up

Před měsícem
Eurasia Acaci .-
Eurasia Acaci .-

In the Philippines, all native languages are called dialects if its not Filipino

Před měsícem
smakkacow
smakkacow

putting the video in the top left after you went back down was genius

Před měsícem
Cameron Schultz
Cameron Schultz

Google Translate: "I'm about to end this man's whole career"

Před měsícem
Brooksquid
Brooksquid

Twin languages

Před měsícem
Aloysius Kurnia
Aloysius Kurnia

"And even fairly major ones can be in trouble" "Lemme guess, Gaeilge?" "Icelandic is spoken..." "NOT ICELANDIC TOO!"

Před měsícem
Miller Peshek
Miller Peshek

I wouldn't really call Geailge major, but it absolutely needs support.

Před měsícem
Артём Бойко
Артём Бойко

I'm just wondering if conlangs are counted there Esperanto is spoken by hundreds of thousands people, but it's absolutely possible they didn't include it

Před měsícem
DpsAlt
DpsAlt

*7118, they forgot Ferb-Latin

Před měsícem
Jeremy Johns
Jeremy Johns

seven-thousand one-hundred seventeen.

Před měsícem
Asher
Asher

What's a computer? 1:14

Před měsícem

Další

It’s pronounced GIF.

03:24

It’s pronounced GIF.

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